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Isnin, 28 Disember 2015

[TRAVEL] Bercuti ke Busan dan Gyeongju -7- Tempat Menarik & Bersejarah di Gyeongju

Gyeongju (Sebutan Korea: [kjəːŋdʑu]) merupakan sebuah bandar raya yang terletak di tenggara wilayah Gyeongsang Utara, Korea Selatan. Ia adalah bandar raya kedua terbesar dalam wilayah selepas Andong dengan keluasan 1,324 km2 (511 bt persegi) dan jumlah penduduk seramai 269,343 orang menurut bancian tahun 2008. Gyeongju berada 370 km (230 batu) dari bahagian tenggara Seoul dan 55 km (34 batu) dari timur Daegu. Bandar raya ini bersempadan dengan Cheongdo dan Yeongcheon di barat, Ulsan di selatan, Pohang di utara dan bahagian timurnya pula adalah Laut Jepun (Laut Timur). ~Petikan dari wikipedia


Kota Bersejarah Gyeongju adalah tersenarai sebagai salah satu Tapak Warisan Dunia milik Korea Selatan yang dimasukkan oleh UNESCO pada tahun 2000. Wilayah yang dilindungi mencakup daerah-daerah yang memiliki peninggalan-peninggalan kuil dan istana, pagoda dan arca-arca serta artifak budaya yang berasal dari kerajaan Silla. Gyeongju juga dikenali sebagai muzium terbuka terbesar di dunia!

Untuk sampai ke sini dan mengoptimumkan masa, selepas subuh kami terus bersiap-siap untuk melakukan kembara ke bumi Gyeongju yang letaknya lebih 90km daripada kota Busan. Subuh di busan awal, iaitu jam 4.18 masuk waktu pada hari tersebut.

Kami mahu seawal mungkin tiba di Gyeongju, jadi setelah bersarapan dengan roti kira-kira jam 6.30 kami sudah berada di jagalchi stn. Dari situ, kami menuju denagn tren ke Nopo Station iaitu stesen terakhir line berwarna oren.

Stesen bas antara bandar (jarak jauh) berkembar dengan stesen metro/subway Nopo. Kami terus ke kaunter tiket dan lucunya agak terpinga-pinga bagaimana untuk membeli tiket. Mungkin rasa mengantuk awal pagi mengganggu tumpuan aku.

Selepas bertenang seketika baru otak aku dapat berfikir dan tiket ke bas ke Gyeongju akhirnya berjaya berada dalam genggaman. Bas kami bertolak kalau tak silap jam 7.45 pagi. Sampai di stesen bas ekspress di Gyeongju sekitar jam 9.00 pagi.









Sebelum aku berceloteh tentang kembara kami di Gyeongju, jom kita tengok apakah tempat-tempat yang menarik di Gyeongju. Berikut aku senaraikan 10 tempat menarik yang ada. Oleh kerana kami cuma seharian di Gyeongju, bukan semua tempat menarik ini kami pergi.

1) Bulguksa Temple
Bulguksa Temple is the representative relic of Gyeongju and was designated as a World Cultural Asset by UNESCO in 1995. The beauty of the temple itself and the artistic touch of the stone relics are known throughout the world. 

Bulguksa Temple was built in 528 during the Silla Kingdom, in the 15th year of King Beop-Heung's reign (514-540). The temple was originally called ‘Hwaeom Bulguksa Temple’ or ‘Beopryusa Temple’ and was rebuilt by Kim Dae-Seong (700-774), who started building the temple in 751 during the reign of King Gyeong-Deok (in power 742-765) and completed it in 774 during the reign of King Hye-Gong (in power 765-780). Upon completion, the temple’s name was changed to ‘Bulguksa.' 


2) Gyeongju National Museum
Gyeongju National Museum is steeped in tradition. Representing Gyeongju, which was the capital city of the Silla Kingdom (BC57~AD935), the museum is where you can view the cultural history of Gyeongju district. Exhibitions are divided into 4 large areas: the Main hall, Annex I, Annex II, and the Outdoor Exhibit Area (Museum Grounds). 

In the Main Hall you can see earthenware, with various artworks and craftworks in the Arts and Crafts room. Gukeun Memorial Hall exhibits 666 artifacts, which were the personal collection of Dr. Lee Yang-Seon, donated to the museum for preservation. Artifacts from the great tombs of the city of Gyeongju are displayed in the Gobun Gallery in Annex I. There are many glittering accessories, such as golden crowns and crown ornaments, belts, earrings, etc. You will be introduced to the superb artistry of the Silla Period through these artifacts.

Approximately 30,000 artifacts have been excavated from Anapji Pond, the most significant of which are exhibited in the Anapji Gallery in Annex 2. Other galleries in Annex 2 exhibit household goods. These various types of items show many aspects of life in the Royal Court during the Silla Period. After the galleries, you can move on to the Outdoor Exhibit Area, in the Museum Grounds. King Seongdeok’s Bell, located here, is the most renowned of all Buddhist temple bells. You cannot help but feel solemn as you gaze upon the relic. There is also a variety of artifacts from royal palaces and temples exhibited throughout the grounds. Buddhist sculptures make up the majority of the stone artifacts. If you are a traveler interested in Buddhism or the magnificent culture of royal palaces, this is a place you do not want to miss.


3) Anapji Pond
According to the historical records of ‘Samguk-sagi,’ Anapji Pond was built during the 14th year of King Munmu (in power 661-681 AD) of the Silla Kingdom (57 BC-935 AD). Small mountains were created inside the palace walls, beautiful flowers were planted, and rare animals were brought in to create an exquisitely exotic garden fit for royalty. The pond was originally built in Wolseung Fortress (erected in 101 AD during the Silla period), but the fortress was destroyed and now lies in ruins. 

In 1974, an excavation project revealed large spherical shapes (measuring 200 meters in diameter and 180 meters in height) which indicated that 3 islands had been located in the pond. Thanks to these important findings and existing historical records, Anapji Pond has been restored to nearly its former glory. 


4) Cheonmachong Tomb
Large ancient tombs of kings and nobles of the Silla Kingdom can be seen around Gyeongju at the Daereungwon Tomb Complex (Cheonmachong Tomb). There are twenty-three large tombs located here; the most famous being Cheonmachong and Hwangnamdaechong. 

In an excavation of the area in the 1970s, Cheonmachong was discovered with a painting of a mounted horse. This painting is the only discovered painting from the Silla era. You can also view the inside of Cheonmachong. There are 11,526 remains and royal crowns inside the tomb, demonstrating the lavish lifestyle of the king. Another tourist attraction is Hwangnamdaechong, the largest ancient tomb. It houses the bodies of both the king and queen and has over 30 thousand relics and gold accessories. 

The unique thing about Hwangnamdaechong is that the queen's tomb has more luxurious accessories. Researchers have concluded that even the queen can have a high social position before marriage. You can feel the ancient culture of Korea 1,500 years ago when visiting these tombs.


5) Bomun Lake
Bomun Lake Resort is the international tourist district of Gyeongju. 
This tourist district is formed featuring Bomunho Lake at its center, located 6km east of downtown Gyeongju. The dimensions of the area is 19.38 square km, and it is designated as a spa and special tourist district. It is a total tourist complex that opened in April 1979. At the entrance the stream from Deokdongho Lake flows in, powering a water mill inside, and flows on to a 12m artificial waterfall. 

Within the Bomun Tourist Town are facilities traditionally designed architecture such as the tourist center used as international conference room, golf resort, shopping mall, and a tourist hotel. It contains many amusement facilities such as a ferry port, Yukbu Village, Seonjae Art Gallery, Bomun Outdoor Performance Hall, drive-in theater, and Gyeongju World. 

Every year from April to January the following year, traditional Korean music (Gugak) performances are held free of charge at Bomun Outdoor Performance Hall. You can also enjoy the hot spring in the Bomun District. 

Along the lake is a long walkway with many cherry trees. In April the whole walkway is covered with pink petals of cherry blossoms. Viewing the beautiful scenery of this walk with pink petals dancing with the wind make you smile gently.


6) Cheomseongdae Observatory
Cheomseongdae is the oldest existing astronomical observatory in Asia. 
Constructed during the reign of Queen Seon-deok (632-647), it was used for observing the stars in order to forecast the weather. This stone structure is a beautiful combination of straight lines and curves, and was designated as National Treasure No.31 on December 20th, 1962. 

Cheomseongdae was built in a cylinder shape with stones 30cm in diameter. 362 stones were piled up to make 27 levels. Roughly 4.16m up from the bottom there is a 1㎡ square entrance and a space to hang a ladder under it. 
The inside is filled with soil up to the 12th level, and the 19th, 20th, 25th, and 26th levels all have long rocks hanging on two areas, shaped as the Chinese letter '井' (jeong). 

It stands 9.17m high and the base stone on each side measures 5.35m. 
The Vernal Equinox, Autumnal Equinox, Winter Solstice, Summer Solstice and the 24 solar terms (also known as the astronomical solar year) were determined by the observation of stars. The pavilion stone is believed to have been used as a standard of deciding directions, north, south, east and west. The 362 stones used to build Cheomseongdae represented the 362 days in a lunar year.


7) Seokguram
Seokguram, located on Tohamsan Mountain, is the representative stone temple of Korea. The official name of Seokguram, National Treasure No. 24, is Seokguram Seokgul. Designated as World Cultural Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1995, it is an artificial stone temple made of granite. The construction was started by Kim Dae-Seong (700-774) in 751 during the reign of King Gyeong-Deok (742-765) of the Silla Kingdom (57 B.C.-A.D. 935) and it was finished twenty-four years later in 774, during the reign of King Hye-Gong (765-780). 

Seokguram is known to have been built with Bulguksa Temple. According to the history book Samgukyusa of the Goryeo Dynasty (the country that unified the Korean peninsula at the end of the Silla Kingdom, 918~1392), Kim Dae-Seong had built Bulguksa for the parents who were alive, and Seokguram for the parents of his former life. 

Seokguram is an artificial stone temple made of granite, and is located on the eastern peak of Mt. Toham. Inside the round-shaped main hall, there are the Bonjon Statue, Bodhi-sattva and his disciples. Seokguram was built to preserve these statues. The Bonjon figure wearing a generous smile is seated on the stage engraved with lotus flower design. The rounded ceiling looks like a half-moon or a bow and has a lotus flower decorated cover on it. As the sunrise from this spot is so beautiful, many people climb the mountain at daybreak.


8) Gyerim Forest
Gyerim Forest is located between the Cheomseongdae Observatory and Wolseong Fortress. The forest is thickly populated by ancient zelkova and willow trees rooted on gently sloping hills and along the small stream in the northwest part of the woods. According to legend, the forest is closely associated with myths surrounding the birth of Alji, the founder of the Gyeongju Kim clan. As such, it is designated national Historic Site No. 19. 

Legend has it that King Talhae heard a rooster crying from deep inside the Sirim Woods. Chancellor Hogong was sent to investigate. Upon arriving, he found a rooster crying underneath a tree on which hung a golden box. Hogong immediately reported his find to the king, who instructed him to bring the golden box into the palace. The king opened the box and found a small child inside, Kim Alji. The forest, which had previously been called ‘Sirim’ or ‘Gurim’, became known as ‘Gyerim’, ('gye’ meaning rooster). The name Gyerim was also used to refer to the Silla kingdom. 
Alji was adopted as the king’s son, but because the crown was passed on to King Pasa of the Park family, he never ascended the throne. The Kim clan later became the royal bloodline with the coronation of King Naemul some years later. 

The memorial stone recording the birth of Kim Alji was erected in the third year of King Sunjo's rule in the Joseon Dynasty. Located close to the royal fortress of Silla, the forest is still deeply revered as the mystical birthplace of the first ancestor of the royal Kim clan of Silla. Yellow canola blossoms along the path connecting Daereungwon with Gyerim and Banwolseong only add to the magical ambiance of the forest. 


9) Gyeongju National Park
Gyeongju National Park is a bevy of cultural preserves dating back to the Silla Kingdom. 

Unlike the other parks located in the area, this park is segmented into individual districts. However, admission fee covers entry to the entire park because the districts are segmented for the government administration. Because Gyeongju itself is a historic city with many important historic sites and relics, Gyeongju is divided into 7 districts, and the park is divided accordingly. 

The Namsan area of Gyeongju is called the Namsan District. This is where many stone Buddhist statues, stone pagodas and about 100 temples sites are found. Here you can find Poseokjeong Pavillion, which was part of the living quarters the king had prepared outside of the palace for feasts. The Namsan District contains many relics spread about the area. You might feel like you took a ride on a time machine to a Buddhist temple of the past. 

Another district is the Tohamsan Mountain District. Here you will find the most famous tourist sites of Gyeongju, Bulguksa Temple. Bulguksa Temple was built in 535, during the reign of King Beopheung (514~540) of the Silla Kingdom and is located at the edge of Tohamsan Mountain. In front of Daeungjeon, there is Dabo Pagoda (10.4m high) to the east and the 3-story Seokga Pagoda (8.2m) to the west. These two pagodas are known as the most artistically constructed Korean stone pagodas, domestically and internationally. On the east side of Tohamsan Mountain is Seokguram, which is called the principal Korean Buddhist statuary. 

Within the Daebon District, a district of Gyeongju National Park, is King Munmu’s Sujungreung. Nearby the King Munmu’s Sujungreung Tomb there is the Gameunsaji 3-Story Stone Pagoda, which was built to honor King Munmu. 


10) Royal Tomb of King Taejong Muyeol
This is the Royal Tomb of King Muyeol (무열왕릉) the 29th of the Silla Kingdom (654-661). He allied his forces with those of the Chinese Tang Dynasty and unified the Korean peninsula. This large tomb is 114 meters in circumference and 8.7 meters in height. 

Natural stones were piled on the bottom of the tomb, and they remain buried underground. The monument stone is gone, leaving only the turtle-shaped base stone and the dragon-carved head stone. Carved in relief is the inscription “Taejongmuyeolwangneungbi” (태종무열왕릉비), which indicates the owner of this monument.


**10 tempat-tempat menarik di Gyeongju ini dipetik dan bersumber daripada laman web rasmi Korean Tourism Organization

4 ulasan:

  1. Bdr Gyeongju ni 'open museum'...suka tengok Timuli Park yg ada kubur mcm bukit...

    BalasPadam
    Balasan
    1. mula-mula studi pasal gyeongju, terkejut jugak tengok kubur macam bukit tu.. hehe. anyway, lawa gak pemandangan macam tu kan?

      Padam
    2. unik kwsan kubur mcm tu..

      Padam
  2. Selamat datang ke Gyeongju. Tambahan lagi boleh pegi Teddy bear Museum dan Toy village. Atau boleh join Gyeongju Cherry Blossom Festival pada musim bunga sakura. Salam kenal dari saya dari Ulsan Korea :)

    BalasPadam

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